ENTREPRENEURIAL FAMILIES IN BUSINESS ACROSS GENERATIONS, CONTEXTS AND CULTURES

CALL FOR PAPERS – Journal of Family Business Management

SPECIAL ISSUE ON: “ENTREPRENEURIAL FAMILIES IN BUSINESS ACROSS GENERATIONS, CONTEXTS AND CULTURES”

Guest Editors:

Albert James, Rowe School of Business, Dalhousie University, Canada

Elias Hadjielias, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus

Maribel Guerrero, Northumbria University, UK

Allan Discua Cruz, Lancaster University Management School, UK

Rodrigo Basco, American University of Sharjah, Sheikh Saoud bin Khalid bin Khalid Al-Qassimi Chair in Family Business, UAE

Families in business are an essential component of the socioeconomic landscape of towns, cities and regions around the world (Basco & Bartkeviciute, 2016; Guerrero et al., 2013; Howorth, Rose, Hamilton, & Westhead, 2010; Seaman, 2015). Entrepreneurial families in business can be broadly interpreted as a phenomenon where several members of a family create and develop one or more business enterprises over time (Hamilton, Discua Cruz, & Jack, 2017; Nordqvist & Melin, 2010). Our understanding of families in business to date is supported by the acknowledgement that entrepreneurship is inextricably linked to family (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003; Heck et al., 2006; Olson et al., 2003; Williams, Zorn, Russell Crook, & Combs, 2013). However, context and time have been scarcely integrated to frame the study of entrepreneurial families in business.

Time is a dimension that affects individual behavior and, consequently, those institutions, such as family and business, in which they are embedded. The objective interpretation of time, as a linear and regular pattern which is irreversible, could be used to explore and explain the start-up, development and exit of entrepreneurial economic activities of families (Drakopoulou Dodd, Anderson, & Jack, 2013) which may impact on management complexity, portfolios or spin offs and further entrepreneurial activities. Time is important because of its subjective intepretation, grounded on the meaning that cultures associate to it (Ancona, Okhuysen, & Perlow, 2001), which may alter the interpretation of the entrepreneurship phenomenon itself as well as the perception and subsequent entrepreneurial behaviour across cultures at the individual, group, and firm level. Scholars are called to understand the dynamics that motivate a family to keep a busines under family control over time (Tucker, 2011) often developing tailored managerial forms of control (Botero, Gomez Betancourt, Betancourt Ramirez, & Lopez Vergara, 2015), often challenging long standing ideologies within their firms (Johannisson & Huse, 2000). Similarly scholars are called to understant the effect of entrepreneurship on families and the desire to maintain control of their business (Jennings, Breitkreuz, & James, 2013).

Context is what is beyond the phenomenon itself, and the demarcation between them is composed of both a physical and cognitive aspects (Basco, 2015). While context has traditionally represented the formal and informal institutions that shape the phenomenon of entrepreneurial families in business (North, 1990; Scott, 1995), recent work suggests that there are multiple and overlapping embedded contexts (Basco, 2017), which may influence the practice of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial families in business (Welter, 2011). Recently, in a study of a rural cooperative comprised of family businesses, Hadjielias & Poutziouris (2015) explored the dynamics bringing together families in business from diffferent business contexts. Their findings underscore that context is important for entrepreneurial families to engage in entrepreneurial activities collectively. Contexts such as industrial districts (Johannisson et al., 2007) and entrepreneurial environments (Guerrero et al., 2013), as well as endogenous, exogenous and temporal aspects (Wright, Chrisman, Chua, & Steier, 2014) merit close attention. Further studies around context and its physical/cognitive as well as formal/informal demarcations can help develop theories of entrepreneurial families in business and contextualise the phenomenon.

A focus on entrepreneurial families in business underscores a family perspective on entrepreneurship by considering three levels of analysis: individual, group and firm (Discua Cruz & Basco, 2017). Each level calls for interdisciplinary studies with different dimensions and relationships to be explored through time and within contexts. For example, at the individual level, the influence of family in entrepreneurship has been discussed by Aldrich and Cliff (2003) (2003), yet more work is needed to unpack how family dynamics influence the initial steps in an entrepreneurial process in particular contexts and time. Further works at the group level approach could help contextualize the interactions of family members as building blocks for creating collective rules, patterns, goals and expectations that influence a family group/team dynamics when creating or pursuing business opportunities (Discua Cruz, Hadjielias, & Howorth, 2017; Discua Cruz, Howorth, & Hamilton, 2013). Finally, at firm level, the interaction between family firm and corporate entrepreneurship needs more research in order to better understand the cross-family and cross-cultural differences that may affect corporate venturing, renewal strategies, and innovation.

In theorizing entrepreneurial families in business around time and context we attempt to advance our understanding around recent calls to explore further the link between family, context, time and entrepreneurship (Drakopoulou Dodd et al., 2013; Randerson, Bettinelli, Dosena, & Fayolle, 2015; Seaman, 2015; Welter, 2011). Thus, a special focus on generations, context, and culture for studying entrepreneurial families in business around the world is warranted. To advance understanding around entrepreneurial families in business this special issue aims to consider conceptual, qualitative and quantitative empirical studies from around the world. Theoretical and conceptual research contributions are also welcomed. As the study of entrepreneurial families in business is multidisciplinary, we encourage cross-disciplinary approaches to advance our understanding. Questions and themes that can be submitted and developed for this special issue include, yet are not limited to:

Entrepreneurial families in business

  • What are the entrepreneurial features of families in business?
  • How do entrepreneurial families in business influence a transgenerational entrepreneurship behavior?
  • What kind of family identities and goals do entrepreneurial families embrace?
  • How does the entrepreneurial behaviour of families in business influence firm performance?
  • How and why do entrepreneurial families in business engage in habitual entrepreneurship behaviour?
  • Why do certain entrepreneurial families in business prefer to cooperate with other families in business?

Time

  • How does family life cycles influence entrepreneurial families in business?
  • How business life and product life cycle affect entrepreneurial families in business?
  • How and why some families in business are more entrepreneurial than others?
  • What kind of cognitive processes do entrepreneurial families develop in order to discover and exploit opportuities?
  • How do families in business develop and sustain entrepreneurial opportunities across generations?
  • How does the perception of time by entrepreneurial families affect the dimensions of firm entrepreneurial behavior?
  • How do entrepreneurial families in business address succession processes in family business?
  • How do entrepreneurial families in business influence local, regional institutions over time?
  • How does family life-cycle affect a family’s entrepreneurial activity?

Context

  • Do features of entrepreneurial families in business vary across cultures? What kind of feature differences in terms of managerial philosophy, identities, and family goals can we find across cultures?
  • Is there any link between entrepreneurial institutions and entrepreneurial families?
  • To what extent do particular contextual dimensions (e.g formal/informal, physical/cognitive) affect entrepreneurial families?
  • What are the origins and evolution of entrepreneurial families in business families across contexts?
  • What do concepts of what family is (extent, membership, responsibilities, relationships, etc.) mean for family entrepreneurial activity?
  • How do cooperatives become contexts for the collective practice of entrepreneurship between families in business?

We invite submissions to a special issue of Journal of Family Business Management around the topic of “Entrepreneurial families in business across generations, contexts and cultures”. All papers will be subject to the usual review process and must meet the publication standards of the journal.

This special issue is a collaboration with Family Enterprise Research Conference (FERC), which will be hold in Mexico in June 2018: Family Traditions & Culture: Values and legacy in Entrepreneurial Families.

Additional Information

Authors should follow the guidelines as stated in the Information for Contributors of Manuscripts. Manuscripts should be submitted to https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jfbm no later than September 15, 2018. Authors should indicate “Special Issue” as the manuscript type and should specify that the submission is for the special issue on “ENTREPRENEURIAL FAMILIES IN BUSINESS ACROSS GENERATIONS AND CULTURES” in their cover letter. Please contact Albert James (Albert.James@Dal.Ca), Elias Hadjielias (ehadjielias@uclan.ac.uk), Maribel Guerrero (maribel.guerrero@northumbria.ac.uk), Allan Discua Cruz (a.discuacruz@lancaster.ac.uk), Rodrigo Basco (bascorodrigo@gmail.com) if you have any questions about the special issue.

 

REFERENCES

Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573–596.

Ancona, D. G., Okhuysen, G. A., & Perlow, L. A. (2001). Taking Time to Integrate Temporal Research. The Academy of Management Review, 26(4), 512–529.

Basco, R. (2015). Family business and regional development-A theoretical model of regional familiness. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(4), 259–271.

Basco, R. (2017). Epilogue: Multiple embeddedness contexts for entrepreneurship. In M. Ramírez-Pasillas, E. Brundin, & M. Markowska (Eds.), Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in developing and emerging economies (pp. 329–336). London: Edward Edgar.

Basco, R., & Bartkeviciute, I. (2016). Is there any room form family business into European Union 2020 Strategy? Family business and regional public policy. Local Economy, 31(6), 709–732.

Botero, I. C., Gomez Betancourt, G., Betancourt Ramirez, J. B., & Lopez Vergara, M. P. (2015). Family protocols as governance tools: Understanding why and how family protocols are important in family firms. Journal of Family Business Management, 5(2), 218–237.

Discua Cruz, A., & Basco, R. (2017). A family perspective on Entrepreneurship. In N. Turcan R & Fraser (Ed.), A Handbook of Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Entrepreneurship (p. forthcoming). Palgrave.

Discua Cruz, A., Hadjielias, E., & Howorth, C. (2017). Family entrepreneurial teams. In C. Ben-hafaiedh & T. Cooney (Eds.), Research Handbook on Entrepreneurial Teams: Theory and Practice (C. Ben-Haf). UK: Edward Edgar.

Discua Cruz, A., Howorth, C., & Hamilton, E. (2013). Intrafamily Entrepreneurship: The Formation and Membership of Family Entrepreneurial Teams. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(1), 17–46.

Drakopoulou Dodd, S., Anderson, A., & Jack, S. (2013). Being in time and the family owned firm. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 29(1), 35–47.

Guerrero, M., Peña-Legazkue, I., Marshall, A., Gras, G., Mira, I., & Coduras, A. (2013). Entrepreneurial activity and regional development: an introduction to this special issue. Investigaciones Regionales, 26, 5–15.

Hadjielias, E., & Poutziouris, P. (2015). On the conditions for the cooperative relations between family businesses: the role of trust. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 21(6), 867–897.

Hamilton, E., Discua Cruz, A., & Jack, S. (2017). Re-framing the status of narrative in family business research: Towards an understanding of families in business. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 8(1), 3–12.

Heck, R., Danes, S., Fitzgerald, M. A., Haynes, G., Jasper, C., Schrank, H., … Winter, M. (2006). The family’s dynamic role within family business entrepreneurship. In P. Poutziouris, K. Smyrnios, & S. Klein (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Family Business (pp. 80–124). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Howorth, C., Rose, M., Hamilton, E., & Westhead, P. (2010). Family firm diversity and development: An introduction. International Small Business Journal, 28(5), 437–451.

Jennings, J. E., Breitkreuz, R. S., & James, A. E. (2013). When Family Members Are Also Business Owners: Is Entrepreneurship Good for Families? Family Relations, 62(3), 472–489.

Johannisson, B., Caffarena, L. C., Cruz, A. F. D., Epure, M., Pérez, E. H., Kapelko, M., … Bisignano, A. (2007). Interstanding the industrial district: contrasting conceptual images as a road to insight. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 19(6), 527–554.

Johannisson, B., & Huse, M. (2000). Recruiting outside board members in the small family business: an ideological challenge. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 12(4), 353–378.

Nordqvist, M., & Melin, L. (2010). Entrepreneurial families and family firms. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(3–4), 211–239.

North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge university press.

Olson, P. D., Zuiker, V. S., Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Heck, R. K. Z., & Duncan, K. A. (2003). The impact of the family and the business on family business sustainability. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 639–666.

Randerson, K., Bettinelli, C., Dosena, C., & Fayolle, A. (2015). Family Entrepreneurship: Rethinking the research agenda. NY: Routledge.

Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Seaman, C. (2015). Creating space for the business family: Networks, social capital & family businesses in rural development. Journal of Family Business Management, 5(2), 182–191.

Tucker, J. (2011). Keeping the business in the family and the family in business: “What is the legacy?” Journal of Family Business Management, 1(1), 65–73.

Welter, F. (2011). Contextualizing Entrepreneurship-Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(1), 165–184.

Williams, D. W., Zorn, M. L., Russell Crook, T., & Combs, J. G. (2013). Passing the Torch: Factors Influencing Transgenerational Intent in Family Firms. Family Relations, 62(3), 415–428.

Wright, M., Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Steier, L. P. (2014). Family Enterprise and Context. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(6), 1247–1260.

 

 

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Call for Papers: Family Business & Regional Development

7th Latin America and European Meeting on Organizations Studies (LAEMOS 2018)

IAE Business School – Buenos Aires – Argentina (22nd to 24th March 2018)

 

Pedro Vázquez (FCE – Universidad Austral, Argentina) pvazquez@austral.edu.ar

Rodrigo Basco (Sheikh Saoud bin Khalid bin Khalid Al-Qassimi Chair in Family Business – American University of Sharjah) bascorodrigo@gmail.com

Héctor Rocha (IAE, Argentina) hrocha@iae.edu.ar

 

Family firms are the most common form of organization in the world (Bjuggren, et al., 2011; Faccio & Lang, 2002; Shanker & Astrachan, 1996) – both in developing and developed economies. Family firms are characterized by the family involvement in ownership, management and control affecting the way firms behave (Gomez-Mejia, et al., 2011) and compete (Basco, 2014). Family involvement in economic activities makes family firms being among the world’s oldest firms (The Economist, 2015), to focus more on resilience than performance (Kachaner, et al., 2012), to perform better than non-family firms (Mazzi, 2011) in some contexts, and to have a particular inclination for social issues (Van Gils, et al., 2014; Vazquez, 2016). However, on the other hand, there is a high mortality among family firms during the management succession process from one generation to another, there is a lack of professionalization (Bloom & Van Reenen, 2010) that pushes them to compete in sub-markets and, in some countries, family business tend to control country strategic resources (Morck & Yeung, 2004) increasing social and economic inequality (Fogel, 2006). Consequently, family involvement in economic activities has a paradoxical view as a resilient/rigid organization – Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde effect (Basco, 2015) – with positive and negative effect for economic development(Basco & Bartkeviciute, 2016).

The field of family business has gained significant external legitimacy (Chrisman, et al., 2003; Pérez Rodríguez & Basco, 2011) since its inception by analyzing the family effect on the firm (firm-familiness effect), but a macro understanding of the family firm on regional economic and and social development has hardly being investigated (Stough, et al., 2015). To date, the regional familiness model (Basco, 2015) posits that family firms’ embeddedness in social, economic, and productive structures may affect the geographical dynamics (e.g., factors of production, regional processes, and dimensions of proximity) responsible for social and economic development. However, several questions remain open and unexplored.

The aim of this track is to address the call made by Stough, Welter, Block, Wennberg, and Basco (2015) to further investigate the role that family firms plays in regional development, entrepreneurship and clusters (Rocha 2015; 2004). Through studies about how, when, and under what circumstances the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde effect emerges, the special track will help expand our understanding of family business through the researchers’ findings about the applicability of extant theories and empirical evidence from developing and developed economies. In addition, this special track can help us develop newly grounded theories to achieve a better understanding of family business and regional development.

Questions and themes that can be submitted and developed for this special track include, yet are not limited to:

  • How do national and regional contexts in Latin America affect resilience of family firms?
  • How do family firms contribute to regional development, specifically in terms of regional employment and innovation?
  • What causal mechanisms underlie the role of family firms in regional development?
  • Do family firms care more than other firms about the region in which they are located?
  • Which characteristics of family firms (e.g., management, ownership, control) matter?
  • What is the role of the founder, and what is the role of succeeding family generations?
  • What is the role of family-owned businesses in the region in which they are located?
  • Which regional policies help family firms grow? Which regions attract family firms, and which do not?
  • Which regional conditions foster family firm development? Which barriers do family firms experience at the regional level?
  • How can family firms benefit from a strong regional entrepreneurial orientation?
  • How do family firms affect regional competitiveness?
  • How do family firms contribute to the development and formation of industrial clusters and regional milieus?
  • What ethical dilemmas arise for families in business in the context of adverse situations? How do family firms and business families deal with ethical issues?
  • How do some governance-related characteristics such as autocracy, entrenchment, nepotism, and resistance to change affect family business resilience?

LAEMOS is the premier conference on Latin American and European Organization Studies. Its purpose is to strengthen the Latin America-Europe scholarly link by encouraging interdisciplinary studies of organizations in Latin American and European societies. LAEMOS Conference “Organizing for Resilience: Scholarship in Unsettled Times” will take place from 22nd to 24th March 2018 at IAE Business School, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Authors will be able to submit their abstracts (1.000 words) through the website www.laemos.com until September 30, 2017 (SUB-02: Family Business and Regional Development). Notifications of acceptance will be provided by early December 2017. Please do not hesitate to contact Pedro Vázquez (pvazquez@austral.edu.ar) and the organizing committee (localaemos2018@gmail.com) should you need any clarification or further assistance.

Publication opportunities. Journal of Family Business Management Special Issue on “ENTREPRENEURIAL FAMILIES IN BUSINESS ACROSS GENERATIONS, CONTEXTS AND CULTURES”. Guest Editors: Albert James, Rowe School of Business, Dalhousie University, Canada, Elias Hadjielias, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus, Maribel Guerrero, Northumbria University, UK, Allan Discua Cruz, Lancaster University Management School, UK, Rodrigo Basco, American University of Sharjah, Sheikh Saoud bin Khalid bin Khalid Al-Qassimi Chair in Family Business, UAE.

References

Basco, R. (2014). Exploring the influence of the family upon firm performance: Does strategic behaviour matter? International Small Business Journal, 32(8), 967–995.

Basco, R. (2015). Family Business and Regional Development. A theoretical model of regional familiness. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(4), 259–271.

Basco, R., & Bartkeviciute, I. (2016). Is there any room form family business into European Union 2020 Strategy? Family business and regional public policy. Local Economy, 31(6), 709–732.

Bjuggren, C. M., Johansson, D., & Sjögren, H. (2011). A Note on Employment and Gross Domestic Product in Swedish Family-Owned Businesses: A Descriptive Analysis. Family Business Review, 24(4), 362–371.

Bloom, N., & Van Reenen, J. (2010). Why Do Management Practices Differ across Firms and Countries? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(1), 203–224.

Chrisman, J. J., Chua, J. H., & Steier, L. P. (2003). An introduction to theories of family business. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(4), 441–448.

Faccio, M., & Lang, L. H. P. (2002). The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations. Journal of Financial Economics, 65(3), 365–395.

Fogel, K. (2006). Oligarchic family control, social economic outcomes, and the quality of government. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(5), 603–622.

Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Cruz, C., Berrone, P., & De Castro, J. (2011). The Bind that Ties: Socioemotional Wealth Preservation in Family Firms. The Academy of Management Annals, 5, 653–707.

Kachaner, N., Stalk, G., & Bloch, A. (2012). What you can learn from family business. Harvard Business Review, 90(11), 102-106.

Mazzi, C. (2011). Family business and financial performance: Current state of knowledge and future research challenges. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 2(3), 166–181.

Morck, R. K., & Yeung, B. (2004). Family control and the rent-seeking society. Entrepreneurship-Theory and Practice, 28(4), 391–409.

Perez Rodriguez, M. J., & Basco, R. (2011). The cognitive legitimacy of the family business field. Family Business Review, 24(4).

Rocha, H. (2015). Do clusters matter to firm and regional development and growth? Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, 13(1), 83–123.

Rocha, H. O. (2004). Entrepreneurship and development: The role of clusters. Small Business Economics, 23(5), 363–400.

Shanker, M. C., & Astrachan, J. H. (1996). Myths and Realities: Family Businesses’ Contribution to the US Economy— A Framework for Assessing Family Business Statistics. Family Business Review, 9(2), 107–123.

Stough, R., Welter, F., Block, J., Wennberg, K., & Basco, R. (2015). Family business and regional science: “Bridging the gap.” Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(4).

The Economist. (2015). Family Companies – To have and to hold. Special Report. April, 18th.

Van Gils, A., Dibrell, C., Neubaum, D. O., & Craig, J. B. (2014). Social Issues in the Family Enterprise. Family Business Review, 27(3), 193–205.

Vazquez, P. (2016). Family Business Ethics: At the Crossroads of Business Ethics and Family Business. Journal of Business Ethics, 1–19.

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